Ghadeer in Holy Qur’an

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Verses on Ghadeer

On the day of Ghadeer, some verses form the holy Quran were revealed, which are, on the basis of narrations, stated here under.

First Verse

O Apostle, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) God will protect you from (the mischievous) men.

(Surah Al-Maaedah, verse 67)

This verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) on the day of Ghadeer,

Sayyid Ali al-Husayni al-Milani before he delivered his historic speech. The narrations by Ahlul Bayt (peace be upon them) also confirm that this verse was revealed on the day of Ghadeer. Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Yaqub al-Kulaini (d. 328 AH) quotes this narration on his documentation as under revealing this verse, Allah ordered His Prophet to announce wilayat (guardianship) of Ali (a.s.). Your guardians are Allah, his Apostle and those who believe –those who establish prayers and give Zakat (poor’s rate) while they are bowing down (in worship).

(Surah Maaedah, verse 55)

This verse made it compulsory (upon every Muslim) to accept the guardianship of ulul amr (people of authorities), but people were not aware of the essence of it. Therefore Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) clarify for people the concept of wilayat just as he clarified the concepts of prayers, zakat, fasting and hajj. When this order was declared the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) became anxious, fearing that people might leave his religion, rejecting him as a prophet. He thus mentioned this while talking to his Lord. It was at this point that God, the Exalted, revealed the following verse: O Prophet, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) Allah will protect you from (the mischievous) men.

(Surah Al-Maaedah, verse 67)

Obeying the commandment of God, the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) proclaimed that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was the wali (guardian of Muslim affairs). He called for congregational prayer and asked those who were present to inform about it those who were not present.

(Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p.289, narration 4)

Great Ahle Tasannun Huffaz (memorizers of Quran) and famous Ahle Tasannun scholars such as Ibn Abi Hatam, Ibn Marduyeh, Salabi, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Wahidi, Haskani, Ibn Asakir, Fakhr Razi, Naishapuri, Einy, Jalal Al-Din Suyuti etc. have also related that this verse was revealed on Ghadeer Day.

(al-Durrul Mansoor, vol. 2, p. 298; Asbab al-Nuzul, p. 115; Tarjumah al-Ameer al-Momineen Min Tarikh Medinah Dimashq, vol. 2, p. 86; al-Tafseer al-Kabeer, vol. 12, p. 49; Tafseer Naishapuri, vol. 6, pp. 129-130; Umdatal Qari, vol. 18, p. 206)

 

Second Verse

When the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny)’s speech ended on the day of Ghadeer and those present paid allegiance to Ali (peace be upon him) as the commander of the faithful, this verse was revealed: Today I have perfected your religion for you and finished my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion.

(Surah Maaedah, verse 3)

Sheikh Kulaini quotes on his own documentation, a narration from Imam Baqir (peace be upon him) about Imam Ali (peace be upon him)’s speech which is known as a means (wasila) sermon. In this long speech Imam Ali (peace be upon him) says: “Then the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) went to Ghadeer Khum, and the Muslims made something like a pulpit by his order. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) mounted it and raised my arm to the extent that the whiteness of his armpit became visible. Then he said loudly: Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him.Therefore, friendship with me is friendship with Allah and enmity with me is enmity with Allah. At this moment Allah revealed this verse: Today I have perfected your religion for you, and finished my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion. It is due to this, that my guardianship has resulted in the perfection of religion and pleasure of Allah, the Exalted.”

(al-Kafi, vol. 8, p. 27)

It is worth mentioning that some of the great Sunni scholars and memorizers (of Quran) like Ibn Marduyeh, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Ibn Maghazeli, Muaffaq Maki, Abu Hamed Salehani, Hamyuni etc. have also mentioned that this verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadeer Khum.

(al-Manaqeb of Ibn Maghazeli, p. 18; al-Manaqeb of Khwarizmi, p.80; Faraaez al-Simtain, vol. 1, p. 74)

Third Verse

When people paid allegiance to Ameer al- Mumineen (peace be upon him) and the process came to an end, this verse was revealed concerning a person named Numan Fahri: A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers.

(Surah Ma’arej, Verses 1 and 2)

Sheikh Furat Ibn Ibrahim Kufi has quoted the following on his documentation:Husain Ibn Muhammad Kharifi says: “I asked Sufyan Ibn Eyneh which person the verse ‘Sa-ala Saael’ (above verse) was revealed about?”Sufyan answered: “My nephew! You asked about a thing about which nobody had asked me before. I asked the same question from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (peace be upon him) and he reported the following from his father who heard it from his grandfather, who heard it from Ibn Abbas:

On Ghadeer Day, Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) stood up and made a short speech. Afterwards, he asked for Ameer al-Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him). (When he came), he took his arm and raised it to the extent that the whiteness of their armpits became visible. At this moment the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: Have I not proclaimed the message to you? Have I not admonished you? They said: “Yes you have done it.”He said: Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone. As the Prophet’s word was circulating among people, No’maan became aware of it. He saddled his camel and mounted on its back … He went to Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) and greeted him. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) greeted him back. No’maan said: “O Muhammad! You asked us to say “La ilaha illa Allah”-There is no god but Allah- we accepted. Then you wanted us to believe in your prophecy, and we accepted while there were some doubts. Then you requested us to pray and we accepted. Then you invited us to fasting and we did so. Then you invited us to perform hajj and we did so. Then you said that any of you who gains two hundred dirham, must give one fifth of that as charity every year, we also obeyed this order from you. Right now you have chosen your cousin and made him our leader, saying: “Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone.” Are these words from you or Allah? The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) thrice said: Indeed from Allah.At this moment No’maan Fahri angrily stood up and said: “O Allah! If these words of Muhammad are right, descend rain of stone upon us from the sky, so that it can be an affliction for the present generation and a sign for coming generations and if they are wrong then descend your misfortune on Muhammad.” Then he browbeat his camel and opened its shackle. He rode on it and went away. Then, when he was crossing a vast plain, God, the Most High, descended a stone from the sky on his head, in such a way that after hitting his head, the stone came out of his back, causing him perdition.

At this moment, Allah the Most High revealed this verse concerning No’maan Fahri.

A   demander   demanded   an   absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers. (It is) from Allah the owner of the ways of ascent.

(Surah al-Ma’arej, Verses 1 to 3)

Some of the prominent Sunni scholars and narrators such as Sa’labi, Sibt Ibn Jauzi, Zarandi, Samahudi, Ibn Sabbagh, Manawi, Halabi etc have also mentioned that that this verse was revealed about No’maan Fahri.

(Tazkeratul Khawaas, p. 30; Nadam Dorar al-Samtee, p. 93; al-Fusulul

Mohimmah, p. 42; Faiz al-Ghadeer, vol. 6, p. 281; al-Sirat al- Halabiyyah, vol. 3, p. 334; Noorul Absaar, p. 78, etc.)

It is worth noting that this narration with the same text has also been reported by Sa’labi on his documentation from Sufyan Ibn Eyneh in his commentary on Quran.

Fourth Verse

Sheikh Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qummi, a third century great scholar quotes Imam Ja’far Sadiq (peace be upon him) as saying:

The following verses were revealed about Imam Ali, the commander of the faithful (peace be upon him) on Ghadeer Day): And Verily this (holy Quran) has been sent down from the Lord of the worlds; The Faithful Spirit has descended it; upon your heart that you may be of the warners.

(Surah al-Sho’ara, Verses 192-194)

(Tafseer al-Qummi, vol. 2, p. 124; Sheikh Muhammad Mohsin Faiz Kashani (d. 1091 AH), has also narrated this narration on the authority of Tafseer al-Qummi in his al-Safi fi Tafseerul Quran, vol. 4,50)