His Prediction on the Events:
Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, predicted many events. They occurred as he predicted after a time. For example, he predicted the end of the authority of the Abbasjds: AbO Muslim al- KhurasSni came to al- Sidiq and tired to Convince him to take the reins of power. He told him that there were inany people ready to support him. Al- Sädiq, peace be on him, said to him:” What you are talking about shall not be ours. The children of al- Abbas shall play with authority.” So, Abfl Muslim went to Abd Allah b. al- Hasan and asked him to take the reins of authority. Abd Allah gathered the members of his fand took care of the matter. He summoned AbO Abd Allah (al- Sädiq), peace be on him, to ask his advice. So, al- Sftdiq came and sat between al- Saffah and al- Mansflr. When they asked the advice of al- Sädiq. he patted al- Saffah’s shoulder and said:” No, by Allah, this shall be the first to take the reins of authority.” Then, he patted al- MansIIr’s shoulder and said:” The childre?a of this shall play with authority.” Then, he stood up and left their meeting.
(al-Maso’odi, al-Wasiya, p. 141) One day Abd Allah Ibn al-Hasan summoned Imam Sadiq (a.s.) to nominate his son Mohammed to the Caliphate. Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said to Abd Allah: “By Allah, this matter (the caliphate) is not for you nor for your children. The caliphate is for this (i.e. al-Saffah), then for this (i.e. al-Mansur), and then for his children. When Imam Sadiq (a.s.) went out, Abu Ja’far (al- Mansur) followed him and said to him: “Abu Abd Allah, do you know what you have said?” Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: “Yes, by Allah, I know it (the caliphate) and it shall occur.” Also Imam Sadiq (a.s.) predicted the killing of Mohammed and Ibrahim, the two sons of al-Hasan, on many occasions. One day, he said: “Marwan shall be the end of the Omayyads, and Mohammed shall be killed.”
Emergence of khwarji
According to some reports, at the time of the battle of Jamal and then in the battle of Siffin before the event of Hakamiyya (arbitration), Khawarij were in the army of Imam Ali (a.s.). Generally, their emergence is thought to date back to the event of Hakamiyya. Some reports have considered the emergence of Khawarij after the declaration of the verdicts of the two judges. When Mu’awiya’s army raised copies of the holy Qur’an on their spears in the battle of Siffin and demanded going to the Qur’an, regardless of the opposition of Imam (a.s.), most of his army asked for Hakamiyya. That, they had lost people, were exhausted, and because of the tribal tendencies, superficial understanding of Bedouin Arabs in the army of Imam (a.s.) made the trick of the enemy work. Some of the companions of Imam Ali (a.s.) opposed the idea of Hakamiyya from the beginning and regarded it as turning their back to religion and developing doubt in faith. Also, some others referred to two verses of the holy Qur’an (5:44 and 49:9) and asked for continuing the fight with Mu’awiya. They regarded accepting Hakamiyya as infidelity and repented for it. They asked Imam (a.s.) to repent from this infidelity and break the conditions he made with Mu’awiya! But Imam (a.s.) did not accept and said: “We have accepted something that we cannot break.” Also about Hakamiyya, Imam (a.s.) said: “I was against Hakamiyya, and when later I accepted it due to the pressure of people forcing me to do so, I made a condition that if they rule according to the Book of God, I would follow it, because in fact we have accepted the judgment of the Qur’an, not the judgment of people.” Moreover, Imam (a.s.) declared his will for resuming the war with Syria after collecting the taxes. After the battle of Siffin was discontinued and Imam (a.s.) returned to Kufa and Mu’awiya returned to Syria, those who were against Hakamiyya separated themselves from Imam Ali (a.s.) and went to the village of Harura’ near Kufa. This way, a group called Khawarij [literally meaning “those who exit”] emerged.